Astronomers find massive SUPER SPIRAL galaxies


In archived NASA data, astronomers have discovered a class of galactic leviathans called 'super spiral' galaxies that dwarf our own galaxy, the Milky Way, and compete in size and brightness with the largest galaxies in the universe.

Super spirals have long hidden in plain sight by mimicking the appearance of typical spiral galaxies. The new study using archived NASA data revealed that these seemingly nearby objects are in fact distant, behemoth versions of everyday spirals. "We have found a previously unrecognised class of spiral galaxies that are as luminous and massive as the biggest, brightest galaxies we know" - said study lead author Patrick Ogle, astrophysicist at the Infrared Processing and Analysis Center (IPAC) at the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, US.

The findings were published in The Astrophysical Journal. "It's as if we have just discovered a new land animal stomping around that is the size of an elephant but had shockingly gone unnoticed by zoologists," Ogle added. Ogle and colleagues chanced upon super spirals as they searched for extremely luminous, massive galaxies in the NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database (NED), an online repository containing information on over 100 million galaxies.

"Remarkably, the finding of super spiral galaxies came out of purely analysing the contents of the NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database, thus reaping the benefits of the careful, systematic merging of data from many sources on the same galaxies," study co-author George Helou, executive director of IPAC, said. The researchers expected that humongous, mature galaxies called ellipticals -- so named for their football-like shapes -- would dominate their search within NED for the most luminous galaxies. But a tremendous surprise lay in store for the scientists.

In a sample of approximately 800,000 galaxies no more than 3.5 billion light-years from Earth, 53 of the brightest galaxies intriguingly had a spiral, rather than elliptical, shape. The researchers double-checked the distances to the spiral galaxies and saw that none were nearby -- even the closest lay some 1.2 billion light-years away. With the correct distance estimates in hand, the stunning properties of this new found batch of whirlpool-shaped galaxies came to light.

Super spirals can shine with anywhere from eight to 14 times the brightness of the Milky Way. They possess as much as 10 times our galaxy's mass. Their gleaming, starry disks stretch from twice to even four times the width of the Milky Way galaxy's approximately 100,000 light-year-wide disk, with the largest super spiral spanning a whopping 440,000 light-years.

Super spirals also give off copious ultraviolet and mid-infrared light, signifying a breakneck pace of churning out new stars. Their star formation rate is as high as 30 times that of our own run-of-the-mill galaxy. "Super spirals could fundamentally change our understanding of the formation and evolution of the most massive galaxies," Ogle said. "We have much to learn from these newly identified, galactic leviathans," Ogle noted.

Milky Way cold clouds shine in new in-depth cosmic map

Showing off the Milky Way clouds like never before, a new cosmic map covers our galaxy's densest regions of star formation.
APEX, the Atacama Pathfinder EXperiment telescope, is located at 5100 metres above sea level on the Chajnantor Plateau in Chile's Atacama region. The ATLASGAL survey took advantage of the unique characteristics of the telescope to provide a detailed view of the distribution of cold dense gas along the plane of the Milky Way galaxy. The new image includes most of the regions of star formation in the southern Milky Way.

 
The new ATLASGAL maps cover an area of sky 140 degrees long and 3 degrees wide, more than four times larger than the first ATLASGAL release. The new maps are also of higher quality, as some areas were re-observed to obtain a more uniform data quality over the whole survey area.

The new release of ATLASGAL complements observations from ESA's Planck satellite. The combination of the Planck and APEX data allowed astronomers to detect emission spread over a larger area of sky and to estimate from it the fraction of dense gas in the inner Galaxy. The ATLASGAL data were also used to create a complete census of cold and massive clouds where new generations of stars are forming.

ATLASGAL provides exciting insights into where the next generation of high-mass stars and clusters form. By combining these with observations from Planck, a link to the large-scale structures of giant molecular clouds can be obtained, said Timea Csengeri from the Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy (MPIfR).

Leonardo Testi from ESO concluded that the new release of the full survey opens up the possibility to mine this marvellous dataset for new discoveries.

Sea level rising faster than ever by the meltwater of Greenland

A team of multinational scientists found that the vast amounts of water melting off Greenland's glaciers in recent seasons have inundated this spongy layer in places, filling it up beyond what it could absorb. Solid icecaps have now formed over much of the firn at certain elevations, making it impermeable to additional melt-water. That new melt-water has nowhere to go but off the ice sheet and into the ocean, once again help to rise sea level.

The Greenland Ice Sheet was in terrible shape last season. For the first time since 2012, melting occurred on more than 50 percent of the sheet, and the melt season lasted 30 to 40 days longer than average, according to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA). "If the Greenland Ice Sheet were to melt away completely, ocean level would rise roughly 23 feet" - noted by NOAA. So scientists have good reason to watch Greenland melt closely.

Tips to Keep Your Eyes Healthy on Computers



1. IT'S ALL IN A BLINK - Computer users have an unstable tear film due to improper and infrequent blinking. A healthy person blinks approximately 16times/minute. So blink frequently, auto suggest yourself, to overcome the habit of staring at computer screen.

2. AVOID GLARE - To reduce the discomfort, make changes in your computer settings to maximum contrast and minimum brightness. Avoid keeping your computer against a light source/window.

3. LUBRICATE - If you are experiencing mild dryness, irritation, watering in your eyes, wash them gently with clean water frequently. Lubricating drops too can be used.

4. 20-20-20 rule - Remember to look at distance of 20 feet every 20 minutes of computer work and blink 20 times.

5. SPECTACLE CORRECTIONS - Even a small uncorrected refractive error can make your eyes very uncomfortable while working on computers. So always wear latest corrected glasses and have a good antiglare coating on your glasses for computers.

6. EAT HEALTHY - A good balanced diet rich in green vegetables and yellow fruits (Papaya, Mango) and plenty of fluids will keep your eyes healthy all your life!

NASA Explorer Decodes Interstellar Magnetic Field

Using data from NASA's Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX), scientists have determined the strength and direction of the magnetic field outside the heliosphere, giving us a peek into the magnetic forces that dominate the galaxy beyond.

Immediately after its 2008 launch, IBEX spotted a curiosity in a thin slice of space - more particles streamed in through a long, skinny swath in the sky than anywhere else.

The origin of the so-called IBEX ribbon was unknown - but its very existence opened doors to observing what lies outside the solar system.

Now, a new study uses IBEX data and simulations of the interstellar boundary - which lies at the very edge of the giant magnetic bubble surrounding our solar system called the heliosphere - to better describe space in our galactic neighborhood.

The study is based on one particular theory of the origin of the IBEX ribbon, in which the particles streaming in from the ribbon are actually solar material reflected back at us after a long journey to the edges of the suns magnetic boundaries, researchers said.

A giant bubble, known as the heliosphere, exists around the sun and is filled with what is called solar wind, the suns constant outflow of ionized gas, known as plasma. When these particles reach the edges of the heliosphere, their motion becomes more complicated, they said.



"The theory says that some solar wind protons are sent flying back towards the sun as neutral atoms after a complex series of charge exchanges, creating the IBEX ribbon," said Eric Zirnstein from Southwest Research Institute in US. "Simulations and IBEX observations pinpoint this process - which takes anywhere from three to six years on average - as the most likely origin of the IBEX ribbon," said Zirnstein.

A giant bubble, known as the heliosphere, exists around the Sun and is filled with what's called solar wind, the sun's constant outflow of ionized gas, known as plasma.

The directions of different ribbon particles shooting back toward Earth are determined by the characteristics of the interstellar magnetic field. For instance, simulations show that the most energetic particles come from a different region of space than the least energetic particles, which gives clues as to how the interstellar magnetic field interacts with the heliosphere, researchers said. When these particles reach the edges of the heliosphere, their motion becomes more complicated.

Outside the heliosphere lies the interstellar medium, with plasma that has different speed, density, and temperature than solar wind plasma, as well as neutral gases. These materials interact at the heliosphere's edge to create a region known as the inner heliosheath. Some solar wind protons that flow out from the sun to this boundary region will gain an electron, making them neutral and allowing them to cross the heliopause.

For the study, such observations were used to seed simulations of the ribbons origin. Not only do these simulations correctly predict the locations of neutral ribbon particles at different energies, but the deduced interstellar magnetic field agrees with Voyager 1 measurements, the deflection of interstellar neutral gases, and observations of distant polarised starlight.

"Voyager 1 crossed the termination shock at 94 astronomical units (AU) from the sun, and Voyager 2 at 84 AU," said Zirnstein. One AU is equal to about 150 million kilometres, the average distance between Earth and the sun. "That difference of almost 150 million kilometres was mostly explained by a strong, very tilted interstellar magnetic field pushing on the heliosphere," said Zirnstein.

20 Types of Kisses and What They Actually Mean


A kiss can mean so many things depending on what type of kiss it is and from whom it's coming. A kiss can be one of the most magical experiences of your life. Every kiss offers a special connection to the other person, whether it's a kiss of friendship, passion or a warm greeting, it gives out strong vibes. Kisses are not just reserved solely for the face and there's plenty of places where a kiss on the body is welcomed. It is said that a kiss is the expression of our souls which is why there are so many options to choose from. You will kiss your lover much differently than that of a dear friend. Here are some of the different types of kisses and what they mean.

1. The Forehead Kiss - A kiss on the forehead is a gentle expression of admiration. Usually it is a kiss of friendship or a starter kiss for something for romantic later.








2. Kiss on the Hand - This is when you grasp a persons hand with your fingers gently and kiss the back of the palm. It's a chivalrous move and one that shows your admiration and passion for someone.





3. The Eskimo Kiss - When two noses rub up against each other and move back and forth. It's affectionate and often given from a parent to their child. The Eskimo Kiss is believed to be the romantic option for those who live in cold climates, otherwise there's risk of lips getting stuck together.




4. The French Kiss - The French Kiss involves plenty of tongue action and mastery. While not easy to master, it derives from passion, romance and desire so part of the trick is to just go with your emotions.







5. Single Lip Kiss - A subtle single lip kiss is where you suck and sandwich their lip between yours at the same time. This is a suggestive kiss that lets the reciprocate know that you are very into them.







6. Earlobe Kiss - This all encompassing kiss is targeting an erogenous zone for most so it's kind of a big deal. You accomplish this by gently kissing or nibbling the ear on the earlobes. Known to be one of the most romantic and intimate kisses between lovers.






7. Butterfly Kiss - When two people get so close to each others face while they kiss that their eyelashes connect. This kind of kiss and it's intimate gesture is for those madly infatuated or in love with each other.





8. The Spiderman Kiss - Perhaps this sensual kiss was in the mix before Spiderman came out with the epic kiss scene. Spidey is upside down and Mary Jane is standing right side up. This is less risky when doing horizontally on the couch or bed and is a kiss of passion between lovers.



9. The Cheek Kiss - A short peck on the cheek, often in combination with a hand on the arm or a half embrace. It's meanings are dependent on where you are in the world. For some cultures, it's a hello or goodbye.




10. The Air Kiss - Air Kisses can be seen in old french movies in greetings. It's done by giving out a Mwaah in the air beside someone's cheek. Sometimes it's done on both cheeks depending on what country you're in. It's popular among celebs and can also be seen within family and friends. It's a non romantic, friendly gesture.


11. Leave a Mark Kiss - Also known as the lipstick kiss where a girl puts lipstick on and kisses her partner on the cheek, neck or lips. This leaves a mark and is usually just a playful gesture.

12. Secret Message Kiss - This is when lovers send an erotic messages while french kissing so others don't know about it. It's for two people that are very close to each other.

13. Lizard Kiss - This is where the tongue rapidly goes in and out of the mouth in quick strokes. It's a passionate kiss for lovers that are hot and heavy into each other.

14. The Lingering Kiss - A lingering kiss entails a lot of lip to lip kissing for long periods of time. It's full of intense emotion and passion and is often reserved for new love.

15. Kiss of an Angel - This is a gentle kiss on someone's eyelids and is a sweet gesture between two people that deeply love each other. A mother can do it to her child or a husband can do it to his wife.

16. Seductive Kiss - This is where you bit an open mouth that's much like a subtle French kiss (less tongue though). A kiss to win someone's heart and seduce them. It will make anyone's knees weak.

17. The Bite and Nibble - Subtle bites and nibbles on certain parts of a person's facial features such as the nose, cheeks, chin and eventually a kiss is planted on the neck. Deeply sensual kiss that is spontaneous between lovers and exudes intimacy and eroticism.

18. The Jaw Kiss - A kiss that is gentle and yet incredibly sensual as you kiss your partner's jaw. This kiss is for those that are already intimate and very close to each other.

19. The Vampire Kiss - A deep sexy kiss on the neck that includes sucking and a bit of biting. For lovers in an intimate setting.

20. The Big Tease - A kiss that can last for hours and perhaps what John Mayer had in mind when he wrote Your Body is a Wonderland. You tease your partner while getting to explore their body with your lips starting from the forehead and making your way all the way down. One would say this is a very invested method of foreplay and dedicated to lovers.

10 Earthquake prone cities in India




1. Guwahati - Assam - Guwahati falls in zone five of the seismic zones in India which is highly prone to earthquakes. The place has seen some of the deadliest earthquakes and even today small tremors are a common situation. Guwahati receives earthquake predictions on a daily basis; resulting which many adjoining areas in the North-East get affected.

2. Srinagar - Jammu and Kashmir - Being very close to the Himalayas, Srinagar faces heavy risk of earthquakes, high as well as moderate. The friction between the Indian and the Eurasian plane causes earthquakes to occur on the areas close to the Himalayas.

3. Delhi - Delhi has been hit by five devastating earthquakes measuring higher than magnitude of 5 since 1720. The most prone to earthquake neighbourhoods in Delhi lie about two miles on either side of the Yamuna river, the southwestern outskirts of the city known as the Chhattarpur basin, as well as an area popularly known as The Ridge in Delhi.

4. Mumbai - Maharashtra - We all know Mumbai's located on the coastal line, which increases the risk of facing tsunami like disasters. Mild to strong earthquakes are very common in parts of Mumbai. Mild earthquakes are often faced by people living there and parts of the adjoining regions of Gujarat. It should be noted that for the last 20 years, almost all of the buildings in Mumbai have been designed and built keeping in mind that the city falls in seismic zone 4.

5. Chennai - Tamil Nadu - The city, formerly in the comfort Zone 2, has now shifted to Zone 3 - indicating higher seismic activity. According to the seismic mapping , districts in the western part along the border with Kerala are also in Zone 3, along with districts along the border of Andhra Pradesh and a section of the border with Karnataka.The status of Chennai along with major towns on the eastern coast in terms of vulnerability has increased especially after Chennai experienced tremors in September 2001 following a quake measuring 5.6 on the Richter scale off the Pondicherry coast.

6. Kolkata - West Bengal - Within last two years, Kolkata shake may times. Unfortunately, Kolkata is not situated on any fault lines, but the city of joy surrounded by Himalayas fault line. That's why every time any earthquake strike in Nepal or Myanmar it always shakes Kolkata with great force.


The other 4 cities in right order of chronology are:

7. Pune - Maharashtra

8. Kochi - Kerala

9. Thiruvananthapuram - Kerala

10. Patna - Bihar

Top 20 world's highest paid celebrities of 2016

Top earning entertainers on the planet stars pulled in a collective $5.1 billion pretax during our June-to-June scoring period. Regrettably, that’s more than the GDP of Belize, Gambia and Bhutan combined.

Here is the top 20 Celebrity of 2016 according to FORBES

20. David Copperfield(USA) - $64,000,000



19. Dwayne Johnson(USA) - $64,500,000



18. Rolling Stones(UK) - $66,500,000



17. AC/DC(Australia) - $67,500,000



16. Roger Federer(Switzerland) - $68,000,000


15. Garth Brooks(USA) - $70,000,000 

14. Rihanna(Barbados) - $75,000,000
13. Ellen DeGeneres(USA) - $75,000,000

12. Madonna(USA) - $76,500,000
 
11. LeBron James(USA) - $77,000,000

10. Rush Limbaugh(USA) - $79,000,000
9. Adele(UK) - $80,500,000

8. Lionel Messi(Argentina) - $81,500,000
7. Howard Stern(USA) - $85,000,000
6. Kevin Hart(USA) - $87,500,000
5. Cristiano Ronaldo(Portugal) - $88,000,000
4. Dr. Phil McGraw(USA) - $88,000,000
3. James Patterson(USA) - $95,000,000
2. One Direction(UK) - $110,000,000 
1. Taylor Swift (USA) - $170,000,000 



But Indian celebrities are not too far in the list. Most popular actor of Bollywood Shah Rukh Khan - $33,000,000 at 86 and Akshay Kumar - $31,500,000 at 96 respectively.

Science has proven that money cannot buy you happiness

Finally it is official - money CANNOT buy you happiness.

Even scooping the lotto jackpot will not help, because winners get used to the money thanks to a phenomenon known as the hedonic treadmill.

Behavioural economists claim that when our basic needs are met, extra income does not bring increased well-being.

Pete Lunn from the ESRI research institute has explained: The science is pretty clear about this, money cannot buy you happiness, but poverty sure as hell can buy you unhappiness.

When people are unhappy it is often because they are poor and particularly because they are unemployed and cannot participate within society but the important thing here is how people do relative to the people around them matters too.

Quite often those inequalities within society are associated with feelings of unfairness and no one likes to feel like they are being made a mug of.

Top 10 most powerful superhero of all time



Superheroes have been the flavor of the month as of late so you have a list that honors the biggest and the baddest. These heroes are the most powerful in the world. The debate will always continue, who's the most powerful superhero of all time? Checkout our list of top 10 most powerful superheroes of all time -

10. GREEN LANTERN



9. MAGNETO



8. HULK 



7. WONDER WOMAN



6. IRON MAN



5. VISION



4. THOR



3. SUPERMAN



2. SILVER SURFER



1. DR. MANHATTAN